Iskanian v. CLS: Petition for Review Tees Up California Supreme Court Showdown as to Scope of Concepcion
It may soon be up to the California Supreme Court to determine the applicable scope of AT&T Mobility v. Concepcion (131 S. Ct. 1740 (2011)) in California. Specifically at issue is the Second Appellate District’s ruling in Iskanian, which created multiple conflicts within California courts. Iskanian v. CLS Transp. Los Angeles, LLC, ___ Cal. App. 4th ___ (2012) (available here). As expected, the plaintiffs’ attorneys have filed a Petition for Review (available here), arguing the necessity of California Supreme Court intervention to resolve the numerous conflicting decisions.
The Petition for Review casts the Iskanian decision as a distinct outlier in California law, focusing on several new splits of authority within the California courts engendered by the Iskanian decision and requiring Supreme Court review. Foremost, the Petitioners point out that, in Iskanian, the Second Appellate District, Division Two, rejected Brown v. Ralphs, 197 Cal. App. 4th 489 (2011), which was decided by Division Five of the same court just one year ago. Whereas Brown held that PAGA waivers are outside the scope of the Supreme Court’s Concepcion decision, Iskanian disagreed, extending the scope of FAA preemption considerably to cover PAGA claims based on violations of employees’ workplace rights. By ruling as it did, the Petition argues, the Iskanian court has ignored the California legislature, effectively “dismantle[ing] the entire statutory design of PAGA.” Petition at 4.
The Petitioners also emphasize that the Iskanian decision, by purporting to invalidate the California Supreme Court’s Gentry decision (Gentry v. Super. Ct., 42 Cal. 4th 443 (2007)), upends years of California law that had treated employers’ arbitration agreements essentially as “choice-of-forum” clauses that in no case could force employees to give up their substantive rights. Petition at 4. The Petition asserts that Iskanian also disregards United States Supreme Court decisional law on this point, noting that the high Court “has never endorsed the notion that ‘arbitration agreements must be enforced according to their terms’ regardless of whether enforcement would eviscerate a party’s substantive rights, as the Court of Appeal did here.” Petition at 3. Moreover, the Petition contends that Iskanian usurps the California Supreme Court’s role by attempting to overrule the Gentry decision, a step that cannot be taken by an intermediate appellate court. Petition at 5-6.
The Petition vividly evokes the practical considerations at stake: “If this decision takes root, California employers will demand arbitration not because of its traditional benefits of speed, cost-effectiveness and informality, but because it is a means to make any contract enforceable, thereby avoiding any liability for violations of California law.” Petition at 8.
The Petition is expected to attract considerable amicus interest on both sides.